Pigmentation is the patches of skin that become darker than our skin especially when exposed to sun light, or through the process of aging. These spots are caused by the increase of melanin in our skin; this melanin is a defensive factor against sun exposure. Pigmentation appears mostly on face, and hands. There are different kinds for these spots like sun spots, age spots, freckles, acne, and Melasma.
Chloasma and Melasma is the dark spots that are formed because of hormonal changes and sun exposure, these spots increase when exposed to sun. Generally women are the most infected patients specially women who take birth control pills and pregnant women.

Freckles are generally considered attractive but some people tend to reduce them when they expand and affect their appearance. Freckles increase and become darker by sun exposure.
The causes of hypo pigmentation
• Pityriasisalba: It is seen in young children and treated with topical steroid.
• Pityriasisversicolor: It is a superficial fungal infection that appears on chest, neck, back, and face. This infection is treated with topical and oral drugs.
• Leprosy
• Vitiligo: pigmented patches that is seen in different parts of the body.
• Secondary Leucoderma: It is a result of skin contact with some chemicals phenol derivatives
• Post inflammatory hypo pigmentation
• Nevus depigmentosus
The causes of hyper pigmentation
Hyper pigmentation is caused by the increase of melanin in the epidermis.

• Melasma: It happens as a result of hormonal changes and increases with sun exposure.
• Peri-orbital melanosis: It is hereditary dark circles around eyes.
• Freckles and Lentigenes: Black spots on face.
• Photomelanosis: Dark spots caused by sun exposure.
• Sun burn (tan)
• Post inflammatory hyper pigmentation: It occurs as after healing, or it might be caused by drugs and cosmetics.
• Macular lichen amyloidosis.
• Nevus or ‘Birth mark’
• Tattoos
Hyper pigmentation disorders treatment
Most of these pigmentation problems are treated with topical creams or traditional pigmentation treatment techniques. But there are other methods in case the patient didn`t get the required consequence like chemical peeling, carbon peeling (Spectra), electric stimulation of skin, intense pulse light treatment, and laser surgery.
Amongst other Pigmentation treatments, Spectra laser is the newest and latest technology used to treat pigmentation problem. This technique involves moving damaged old skin leaving outer skin area clearer and more radiant. Spectra is used for patients who suffer from age spots, sun damage, acne scars, eye wrinkles, and Melasma.

The physician may apply a light layer of Spectra lotion to your skin, this lotion has a carbon base, so your skin will look as if you are wearing a mud mask. Your physician will start treatment, by applying the laser energy to your skin. You will hear slight snapping sounds when the laser is fired and may feel a slight tingling or warmth. Your physician will make multiple passes over your skin with the laser during each treatment, Carbon will be removed by laser passing on it.